2-17. POTENTIAL HAZARDS
When any of the welding processes are used, the shielded from the air in order to obtain a high molten puddle of metal should be quality weld deposit. In shielded metal arc welding, shielding from the air is accomplished by gases produced by the disintegration of the coating in the arc. With gas shielded arc welding, shielding from the air is accomplished by surrounding the arc area with a localized gaseous atmosphere throughout the welding operation at the molten puddle area.
Gas shielded arc welding processes have certain dangers associated with them. These hazards, which are either peculiar to or increased by gas shielded arc welding, include arc gases, radiant energy, radioactivity from thoriated tungsten electrodes, and metal fumes.
2-18. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
(1) Ozone. Ozone concentration increases with the type of electrodes used, amperage, extension of arc tine, and increased argon flow. If welding is carried out in confined spaces and poorly ventilated areas, the ozone concentration may increase to harmful levels. The exposure level to ozone is reduced through good welding practices and properly designed ventilation systems, such as those described in paragraph 2-4.
(2) Nitrogen Oxides. Natural ventilation may be sufficient to reduce the hazard of exposure to nitrogen oxides during welding operations, provided all three ventilation criteria given in paragraph 2-4 are satisfied. Nitrogen oxide concentrations will be very high when performing gas tungsten-arc cutting of stainless steel using a 90 percent nitrogen-10 percent argon mixture. Also, high concentrations have been found during experimental use of nitrogen as a shield gas. Good industrial hygiene practices dictate that mechanical ventilation, as defined in paragraph 2-4, be used during welding or cutting of metals.
(3) Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide. Carbon dioxide is disassociated by the heat of the arc to form carbon monoxide. The hazard from inhalation of these gases will be minimal if ventilation requirements found in paragraph 2-4 are satisfied.
The vapors from some chlorinated solvents (e.g., carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene) break down under the ultra-violet radiation of an electric arc and forma toxic gas. Avoid welding where such vapors are present. Furthermore, these solvents vaporize easily and prolonged inhalation of the vapor can be hazardous. These organic vapors should be removed from the work area before welding is begun. Ventilation, as prescribed in paragraph 2-4, shall be provided for control of fumes and vapors in the work area.
(4) Vapors of Chlorinated Solvents. Ultraviolet radiation from the welding or cutting arc can decompose the vapors of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as perchloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene, to form highly toxic substances. Eye, nose, and throat irritation can result when the welder is exposed to these substances. Sources of the vapors can be wiping rags, vapor degreasers, or open containers of the solvent. Since this decompsition can occur even at a considerable distance from the arc, the source of the chlorinated solvents should be located so that no solvent vapor will reach the welding or cutting area.
b. Radiant Energy. Electric arcs, as well as gas flames, produce ultraviolet and infrared rays which have a harmful effect on the eyes and skin upon continued or repeated exposure. The usual effect of ultraviolet is to "sunburn" the surface of the eye, which is painful and disabling but generally temporary. Ultraviolet radiation may also produce the same effects on the skin as a severe sunburn. The production of ultraviolet radiation doubles when gas-shielded arc welding is performed. Infrared radiation has the effect of heating the tissue with which it comes in contact. Therefore, if the heat is not sufficient to cause an ordinary thermal burn, the exposure is minimal. Leather and WoOl clothing is preferable to cotton clothing during gas-shielded arc welding. Cotton clothing disintegrates in one day to two weeks, presumably because of the high ultraviolet radiation from arc welding and cutting.
c. Radioactivity from Thoriated Tungsten Electrodes. Gas tungsten-arc welding using these electrodes may be employed with no significant hazard to the welder or other room occupants. Generally, special ventilation or protective equipment other than that specified in paragraph 2-4 is not needed for protection from exposure hazards associated with welding with thoriated tungsten electrodes.
d. Metal Fumes. The physiological response from exposure to metal fumes varies depending upon the metal being welded. Ventilation and personal protective equipment requirements as prescribed in paragraph 2-4 shall be employed to prevent hazardous exposure.